Noticias de Arquitectura


L’architecte Renzo Piano fait rayonner Chicago
mayo 19, 2009, 3:01 am
Filed under: Le Figaro, Piano | Etiquetas: ,

Grâce à sa nouvelle extension inaugurée vendredi dernier, l’Art Institute se hisse à la deuxième place des musées américains, derrière le Metropolitan de New York.

Avec ses buildings de pierre ou de verre, de marbre ou d’acier s’élançant à la conquête du ciel, Chicago est la ville de l’architecture par excellence. Après l’incendie de 1871, les plus grands noms, de Louis Sullivan à Mies Van der Rohe en passant par Frank Lloyd Wright, ont marqué de leur empreinte la capitale du blues. Comment Renzo Piano, ce lauréat du prix Pritzker qui nous a déjà étonnés avec le Centre Pompidou à Paris, la Fondation Beyeler à Bâle, la Menil Collection à Houston, aurait-il pu faire abstraction de cette architecture si grandiose en imaginant la nouvelle extension de l’Art Institute ?

La réussite de cette aile de 25 000 m², entre classicisme et modernisme, tient justement à sa transparence avec ses murs-rideaux de verre et d’acier qui permettent, comme l’a rappelé l’élégant Italien à la barbe grise, « une totale communion avec l’architecture de la ville, qui fut l’un des grands chocs de ma vie ».

Vendredi dernier, le Tout-Chicago – peu d’Européens en dehors de Samuel Keller, de la Fondation Beyeler, et pas un représentant d’institution française ! – est venu admirer ce « bâtiment aérien et lumineux » aux murs blancs et parquet de chêne clair qui s’intègre au cadre spectaculaire du Millenium Park, relié au second étage par une passerelle d’acier (le Nichols Bridgeway) longue de 190 mètres.

Côté nord, la façade semble s’effacer comme par magie pour projeter le visiteur dans le parc de dix hectares que dominent les pétales d’acier du Jay Pritzker Pavillon de Frank Gehry, dans un écrin impressionnant de gratte-ciels. De ce côté, la salle des sculptures de Brancusi, posées comme en lévitation, et celle des bronzes de Giacometti, avec son immense homme semblant marcher vers le ciel, est une grande réussite.

Un département vidéo

L’horizontalité de la nef intérieure avec ses passerelles ouvertes et ses jeux d’escaliers contraste avec la verticalité des façades et ses immenses pylônes supportant le toit conçu comme un tapis volant fait d’alvéoles qui filtrent les rayons du soleil pour restituer aux galeries une lumière naturelle.

Tableaux et installations éclatent ainsi dans toute leur splendeur virginale. Le parcours est classique avec un parti pris chronologique. Le visiteur commence par le dernier étage avec ses Picasso, Matisse, Klee, Léger, Kandinsky, Miro, Magritte, Cornell (une vitrine consacrée à ses boîtes poétiques). Il descend ensuite d’un niveau vers les Américains, Pollock ou De Kooning, pour entrer dans l’univers contemporain de Bruce Naumann, d’Ellsworth Kelly, auteur de la sculpture monumentale extérieure en aluminium blanc. Il découvre Charles Ray, ce natif de Chicago qui a reconstitué, grâce à une équipe d’artisans japonais, un tronc d’arbre de 12 mètres de long, Hinoki, véritable énigme philosophique acquise en 2007, et Robert Gober dont les installations emblématiques évoquent le désarroi de l’Amérique.

La sélection offre peu d’artistes allemands, à l’exception de Lucian Freud et Gerhard Richter avec sa Femme descendant l’escalier en noir et blanc ressemblant à un courant d’air sortant d’un gratte-ciel. Le parcours se termine avec l’architecture et le design, où les frères français Bouroullec sont à l’honneur ainsi que la photo et la vidéo. Le musée s’est enrichi de la récente donation (une vingtaine d’œuvres) du couple Donna et Howard Stone. Mais il n’en est montré qu’une pièce, actuellement celle de l’Anglais Steve McQueen. Dommage car c’est le département le plus novateur de ce musée tout beau, tout neuf…

111 Michigan Avenue, www.artinstituteofchicago.org

Anuncios


Piano lesson for CED students
octubre 3, 2008, 5:50 am
Filed under: Piano | Etiquetas:

| 02 October 2008

SAN FRANCISCO – On the eve of the California Academy of Sciences’ grand opening in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park last week, architect Renzo Piano sat down with students to discuss how green structures can be beautiful, how every building has a story, and how creating a structure, especially one as complex as the academy he designed, is even more complicated than it looks.

Renzo Piano signs autographs at the California Academy of SciencesStudents crowd around architect Renzo Piano after his special lecture for them at the new California Academy of Sciences. (Mary Kyle Cocoma photo)

Smiling like a proud parent, the world-renowned architect famous for co-designing Paris’ Pompidou Center pointed through the building’s glass-encased piazza, the heart of the academy, during the Sept. 26 talk.

Tall and lanky, with gray hair and a beard, the architect craned his neck towards the sky, showing his audience a spider web of steel frames and the layers of wind screens and light shades that make up the academy’s piazza’s ceiling.

He told students to watch people as they cross the second floor walkways, which he can see from where he sat, center stage, in front of 300 students from UC Berkeley’s College of Environmental Design and the California College of Arts in Oakland and San Francisco.

“I call this a ‘Piano Lesson,'” he said about the intimate student lecture. “Without a piano.”

Piano said designing and constructing the 10,000-square-foot structure, complete with a “living roof,” planetarium, rainforest and aquarium, was difficult from the very start.

“Nothing is clear in the beginning,” Piano said. “The beginning of the story, it’s a mess,” he said in his thick Italian accent.

The project took architects, engineers and scientists eight years and half a billion dollars to design and construct. When asked about integration and how different teams worked together, from engineers to landscape architects to botanists, Piano said it was important to surround yourself with people who are more knowledgeable, people you trust and can fight with, comparing the process to marriage.

The building, which Piano said is really comprised of more than 30 pieces, eventually came together. After 10 to 15 prototypes and figuring out which native plants to grow on the living roof and how to house living coral reefs, the result is one of most ambitious green buildings ever constructed and one that has the highest possible Platinum LEED rating, the largest public building in the world to do so.

In today’s world where earth’s fragility is clear, the architect stressed the importance of building with sustainability in mind.

“The purpose of this building is to prove that architecture does not have to be ugly to be green,” Piano said.

After his lecture, Piano answered students’ questions. Some sought advice on how to face the challenges of building and designing for a more sustainable future — “Don’t compromise,” he said — while others wondered how the now 71-year-old architect began his career, to which he answered, that he came from a family of builders.

Many in the audience, were CED graduate students who have studied the building for years.

“It was a great experience to be in the building while he was talking about it so he can actually point at locations and talk about how things work,” said architecture student Gina Siciliano.

With local architects like Kang Kiang of Mark Cavagnero Associate Architects, working on the project and also serving as a Friedman professor at the College of Environmental Design, students have had the chance to learn about the academy before its opening.

“We actually studied this piazza and how the air and ventilation worked,” said architecture student Behman Farahpour. “We already knew so much about it from class that walking in, it makes sense, you have the information you already have with the experience.”

Undergraduate students were also pleased to have an early peek inside the building.

“It’s a little bit of over stimulation at first,” said Ryan Nguyen, a fourth-year architecture student. “But you see all these systems at play and you’re trying to figure out how it all works.”

Mary Comerio, chair of College of Environmental Design’s Department of Architecture, said an architect like Piano challenges the conventions in the industry and inspires students as they grapple with the social and moral responsibilities of building according to the world’s current environmental state.

“This conversation with Piano allows students to really open their thinking not just to try and do what it takes to get a job, but to really think outside the box, to think about what the world needs and what the design field can do in the current situation,” Comerio said.

Piano encouraged the students to be first and foremost passionate about their work and to be artists while at the same time being pragmatic. He said all buildings tell a story. The academy’s story, he said, was one of how families have come to the place for generations to enjoy and learn about science. “The building’s ‘magic’ is the proximity of science and exhibition,” he said.

When asked about what the building is saying today, what story it has to tell, Piano paused.

He said the building is saying, “Make me happy.”